تدریس زبان انگلیسی برای دانش آموزان غیر انگلیسی زبان
Essential to all interaction is the ability to understand what others are saying. Even in the native language many people are poor listeners, whether through weak powers of concentration, egocenterism or short auditory memory. Yet it has been estimated that of the time adults spend in communication activities 45 percent is devoted to listening only 30 percent to speaking 16 per cent to reading and a mere percent 9 to writing (and these data are from a pre television, pre – talking – picture, pre – dicta phone era. ) Apart from communicative interaction , much of the enjoyment in second or foreign – language use comes from listening activities – watching films and plays or listening to radio broadcasts, Songs or talks by native speakers. Even in class students learn a great deal from listening to their teacher, to tapes or records, or to each other.
It is not worthy that some students who do not excel in other areas of foreign language use achieve a very high level of success in understanding spoken messages. It has been suggested by some researchers that there is a special listening comprehension factor, but this has not yet been fully characterized.
Even in life situation many people become skilled, in their own or another language in understanding registers, dialectal variations , and complexities of structure which they can not produce in their own speech .Troike has called this a difference between receptive and productive competence. Students with special skill in listening comprehension should be encouraged and given opportunities to go beyond others in this area which is especially suitable for individualized work.
They should also be rewarded for this skill in which they excel.
Listening is a complex operation integrating the distinct component of perception and linguistic knowledge in ways which are at present poorly understood. Psychologists have tried to explain this phenomenon from several view points each of which can give us some clues to our students’ problems in listening to a foreign language and suggest ways of structuring effective materials for practice and enjoyment.
Levels of Listening comprehension : (activities)
In the following out line the activities are devided in four learning stages:
1st. Identification: perception of sounds and phrases; identifying these
directly and holistically with their meanings .
(The ability to use language holistically for normal life – purposes)
1. Listening to tapes of various languages to detect the language one is learning.
2. Listening to songs and poems for the pleasure of the sounds ( in classroom – listening room or listening corner).
3. Songs and poems played over loudspeakers in the language laboratory for atmosphere.
4. Hearing original sound tracks of documentary films before being able to understand them .
(learning of the elements of language and their potential combinations)
5. Aural discrimination with pictures.
6. Short – phrase discrimination with pictures .
7. Listening to segments of dialogue to be learned .
8. Responding with miming actions to segments from dialogue
learned or from classroom conversation .
9. Responding with flashcards to names of letters of the alphabet.
10. Backward build up in imitation of a model.
in backward build up each utterance to be memorized is devided in to syntactically coherent segments. Students learn the last segment with correct end –of - utterance intonation , then the second – last followed by the last and so on .
11 . Games involving miming of words and phrases learned.
12. listening to conversation –facilitation dialogues, songs , or poems already learned .
13. Listening to retelling of stories already read , reacting in some way to variations from the original.
14. Listening to a conversation which is a variant of a dialogue studied.
15. Listening to an anecdote based on reading material studied.
16. Teacher gives some background on a topic. Then tells an anecdote or describes an experience .
17 . Listening to a description of pictures or slides.
18. Listening to an anecdote, story or dialouge illustrated with a flannel board.
19. listening to a show and tell oral report.
20 . Total physical response activity
21. Obeying classroom activities
22. Listening to simple narration, raising whenever a color (or occupation , or kind of food ,etc.) is mentioned.
23. letter Bingo : Numbers are called randomly ; students check these numbers against numbers on cards they have been given the first student with all of his numbers correctly checked wins.
C. Identification and guided selection with short – term retention.
25. Discrimination of numbers , dates , and times of day by pairing ones they hear with multiple – choice items , clock faces , lists of famous events , or flight schedules.
26. Learning a dialogue with vanishing techniques
27. True/ false questions supplied beforehand ; the student listens to variation of a dialogue or story read and checks answers .
28. Multiple – Choice answers supplied be for hand ; the students listen to a dialogue or story using recombinations of vocabulary and structures learned , and check appropriate answers .
29. Miming the actions in a story being narrated.
30. Obeying complex classroom instructions for class exercises and tests.
31. Completing a diagram according to instructions.
32. Directed dialogue ( highly controled by the teacher )
33. Group piecing together of a new dialogue from initial hearings.
34. participating in cumming device:
cumming device as described by stevick “ The … format itself in what we may a little wryly call its “ classical form “ contained a basic utterance usually but not always a question and from four to eight potential answers or other appropriate rejoinders If the basic utterance and the rejoinders are well chosen, they can lead to almost immediate real or realistic conversation in class, and are also likely to find use in real life outside of class. At the same time, new structures and new vocabulary an kept to a minimum. The usefulness of this technique is that the teacher who has mastered the principle can derive cumming devices as need and interest suggest from any materials – lessons in books , newspaper articles, material heard on tape , radio , or film track , or ongoing communicative activities , As with any device , it is intended , not as the whole of the course but as one among the many possible activities which provide variety for student learning
35. Pariticipating in Gouing series :
The language was taught through a series of commonly performed actions, first orally , then in writing . A different verb was used in each statement and student were expected to acquire the situational vocabulary along with the verb through performing or miming the actions while they described what they were doing .
The teacher first demonstrated the series in the native language and then when the students had understood it clearly , it will be described in the foreign language. Or one child teaches another child as he describing to the others what they do . in foreign language .
36. Participating in verbal – active series.
A. statement followed by a related question .
For example I wake up at 7 every day . when do you get up? And so on.
37. who is it? What is it? Where is it?
Gussing who , what , which place is being described by teacher or student.
38. Intensive practice exercises varying syntactic segments.
39. Taking part in Lipson – type puzzle exercises:
Lipson an attempt to focus the students’ attention on the content of the sentences they are producing has worked out materials which take up the principle of the well – known type of puzzle: e.g
A , B and C live on X , Y and Z streets .
A works in an office.
B. is a lawyer .
C. stays home while his wife goes to work .
The people on X street all work in factories .
The people on Y street are all single.
The people on Z street all own businesses down town .
On which streets do A , B and C live ?
40. Runing commentary :
Listening to a story and giving the gist at the end of each story discussing the ideas.
41. writing down words which are dictated letter by letter
42. writing from dictation series of numbers of increasing length and complexity .
43. In formation search : writing down segments which answer particular questions.
44. Dictation : Students repeat to themselves what they think they heard before they write it.
45. Spot dictation:
Spot dictation enable the teacher to focus the attention of the students on the correct spelling of certain words and on slight differences in the spelling of near – homographs. It is a testing device to contrasted the mastery of the spelling system , as contrasted with word recognition . Sometimes students write the words separately , sometimes in blanks on a partial script. The teacher reads a complete sentence to the class so that the students hear the word in context .
D. Identification , selection , and long – term retention .
46 . Listening to a continuation of a story ( with the same vocabulary area , same setting , and same characters.)
47. listening to a story different from , but with similar vocabulary to one already read.
48. Listening to a conversation similar to one studied.
49. Listening to skits prepared by other students.
50. Listening to dramatizations of stories read.
51. Listening without the text to the expressive reading ( on tape by the teacher , or by a student ) of a poem already studied.
52. Listening to other students reciting poems in a poetry competition.
53. checking answers to aural questions given before or after a passage for listening .
54. checking appropriate choices for multiple – choice continuations ( or rejoinders ) given orally after a listening passage .
55. Listening to a story, then giving the gist at the end.
56. Answering questions orally on a passage just heard.
57. Responding to others in spontaneous role – playing.
58. Listening to and discussing oral reports of other students .
59. Chain dialogue
This is a challenging and amusing way for students to practice retrieval of many expressions and structures they have learned. It can begin with very recent material but should soon develop in to a competition to think up questions and answers of all kinds.
60. Rubbishing the dialogue:
As a variation of the chain dialogue , but with a similar aim of developing flexibility by drawing on all kinds of expressions Which
the students have acquired , one team of students undertakes to keep to the utterances in the dialogue recently studied , the other team thinks up possible other than those learned.
Students try to remain within the bounds of what they have learned but may ask the teacher occasionally for a few new expressions , thus adding to their repertoire things they would like to say .
61. Acting at learned dialougo with others ( Paraphrasing the sense rather than repeating by rote) .
62. Learning and acting a part with others in a skit or original dialogue .
63. What’s my line? Student mimes a series of actions , others ask yes – no questions until they have guessed what the student does for a living.
64. Students answer questions in writing after they have listened to a story or conversation .
65. Students write down what they have learned from another student’s oral report.
66. Cloze test on content of what has been heard.
1. Aural discrimination of small sound distinctions which change meaning of sentences.
2. Recognition of the characteristics of a familiar level of speech with reduced vowels, and words run together syllables omitted through listening to authentic informal speech on tapes , disks or film sound tracks .
3. Aural recognition of English pronunciation of names of foreign personalities and places
4. Aural recognition of English words which exist as borrowings in the native language of the listener.
With action :
5. Recognition of aural indicators of tense : Today or tomorrow ? – tapping for future tenses , miming present tenses .
6. Demonstrating recognition of words dealing with international , scientific , technical , political , and social affairs which are similar in English and the native language of the students and writing these down .
B. Identification and Selection without retention .
7. Listening to a complete reading of a story studied in sections.
8. Listening to a dramatization of a story read .
9. Listening to the acting out of scenes from a play read .
10. Listening to a disk or tape of the reading by an English. Speaking person of a short story. poem, or extracts from a novel .
11. Listening to a version be for listening to a more complicated version
12. Listening to a teacher or another student telling an amusing incident which happened on the way to school or at school .
13. Listening to a news item told by the teacher or another student
14. Listening to the teacher or another student giving back ground information for a news item .
15. Listening to the teacher or another student giving back ground information for reading or for a class or group project
16. Following the line of discussion in a group conversation .
17. Listening to English songs .
18. Listening to a presentation of slides of some aspect of British or American culture, history, or visual arts.
19. Watching and listening to a documentary film on some aspect of life in an English – speaking country.
20. Watching and listening to the final showing of a scholastic film ( with, background of contemporary British or American culture which has already been studied in class)
21. Listening to a story as one is reading it silently to improve fluent reading techniques.
22. Following direction for classroom organization .
C. Identification and guided selection with short – term retention
23. Selecting from aural choices completions for sentences head
24. Listening to oral composition of other students.
25. Listening to skits and spontaneous role – playing of other students.
26. Students discuss news beforehand: then listen to newscasts to find answers to certain questions raised.
27. Students listen to exchange tapes and correspondence tapes.
28. What am 1 describing? ( Guessing an object described by a fellow student ) .
29. Students are provided with multiple – choice or true / false questions be for hand, then they check answers as they listen, or immediately afterwards.
30. Students choose among written completions for sentences given orally.
31. Students practice reading aloud with a tape model each student reads a segment , listens to the model reading then rereads the segment.
32. Students watch films of which they have previously studied the sound track or a synopsis.
33. Students watch films in which they are looking for specific cultural details, certain interactions of characters or particular developments of the story .
34. Following instructions for making something .
35. Providing oral sentence completions at the end of longer and longer sequences.
36. Students hear questions be for hands ( they do not see them ) they then hear the passage , hear the oral questions again , and give oral answers .
37. The student give spontaneous responses on situation tapes a picture of the scene is shown. Students reply to question they hear a bout that situation .
38. Correct Me : noting inappropriate words in a story given orally and suggesting appropriate replacements.
39. Twenty Questions: group asking of eliminative yes – no questions to discover the name of a famous person selected for the game. Or it may be Animal – Vegetable. Mineral (similar to Twenty Question) but there is no limit to the number of questions may be asked.
40. Not yes! Not no ! group elimination game where students are asked all kinds of questions which they may answer in any way they can , So long as thy never use yes or no .
41. All Ears : quick – fire response to syntactic cues. Inexperienced students need practice in listening for certain syntactic signals which must be recognized without hesitation in rapid speech because their presence or a b sense significantly affects meaning . In this game students are de vided in to two teams. The students listen to a series of utterances given at normal speed only once, with the abbriviated forms and reduced vowels of familiar style. After each statement teacher points to a student in a team who must reassert the fact in the statement in short form in the affirmative or the negative as in the original, if student does not respond within two seconds, points to another student in the other team with out repeating the sentence again.
42. Oral spelling bees.
43. Full filing the supportive role of the listener ( Really ? you don’t say! . . . )
44. Writing spelling bees
45. Spot comprehension: students are given incomplete statements about the content of what they will hear ; after listening they fill in the blanks with the missing details , expressed in short phrases.
46. Dictation: gradually increasing the length of the segment to be retained.
47. Taking dictations containing information cultural maters already discussed, like famous sayings of leading historical figures, famous anecdotes most English – speaking children know e. g., George washing ton and cherry tree ( American )
48. Taking down dictated notes on the lives and achievments of historical figures , painters , musicians .
D. Identification, selection and long – term retention
49. Listening with out a script to readings of plays studied
50. Listening to a part of play for which the students will develope impromptu continuations later .
51. Listening to episodes of a mystery serial. (The teacher can construct these from the dialogue in a detective story and have this material recorded by several speakers.
( sound effects add reality )
52. Answering aural question asked after a long listening passage .
53. Group conversation and discussions on an assigned topic
54. Preliminary discussion for preparation of oral composition .
53. Questions and discussion after listening to other students’ oral compositions.
56. Participating in spontaneous skits and role – playing .
57. After listening answering questions asked on the passage students store what they hear in long – term memory in a simplified form .
58. Listening to a passage then giving the gist .
59. listening to a mystery story without hearing the conclusion . then discussing possible explanations .
60. Taking map journeys
Teacher or another student askes one of the students to leave e .g New york the student by a pointer leave the New york on the map and goes where the teacher had said, then the student describes in the simple past tense his destinations .
61. Guilty party: ( discovering the crime of which one is accused and defending oneself )
62. Participating in simulated telephone conversations or authentic telephone conversations with monolingual, or presumed monolingual English speakers .
63. Interviewing visiting native speakers of English to find out who they are, what they do, what they think, and soon.
64. I’ve Got a Secret: discovering the secret a fellow student is concealing ( the secret, may be career plans, weekend plans , what irritates the students most, etc.)
65. To tell the truth: Three students pretend to be the person whose unusual experiences are recounted at the beginning; other students try to find out by questioning who is the real Mr. or Ms .X.
66. Charades: charades provide amusing themes for classroom dramatization students talc a two – syllable word ( high way ) and for each syllable they improvise a short episode which brings in the word it represents ( high / way ).
They then act out an episode which brings in the complete word (highway ).
And students guess which word it is. Other examples: enter / prize / enterprise more than two syllable like lamb/men/ table lamentable.
67. General know ledge Quizzes : Students can choose such categories as American or British history , institutions , contemporary life , current events , language , literature , art , music , sport , exploration , famous men and women .
68. Keeping tabs on the speaker as a test of cultural in formation keeping tabs or the speaker is a team game which forces the students to think of the meaningful use of learned phrases or facts by dislodging them from their familiar settings . It may be given orally or on tape .
69. Listening to and discussing exchange and correspondence tapes
70 . Taking part in general conversation at English – language dubs , tables , or camps at celebrations of festivals , or during study abroad or family – exchange programs ( during summers or school terms)
71. Listening to a passage and then writing the gist
72. Listening to mystery story which stops before the conclusion then writing an explanation .
73. listening to a segment of dialogue, then writing a composition which gives it a content and a conclusion .
1. Aural discrimination of features of rapid spoken style, regional accents and levels of language, through listening to authentic tapes, films , radio broadcasts or plays .
2. Transcribing and retranscribing tapes of unedited authentic speech until the students have recorded it all ( to learn through personal observation , characteristics of unedited speech and tune the ear to understand it.
The students play back any sections of the tape as often as they wish .
B. IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION WITHOUT RETENTION
3. Listening to a sequel to a passage read.
4. Listening to recordings of plays and poems already studied .
5. Listening to scenes from other plays by the playwright studied in class
6. Listening to other poems by the poet studied.
7. Listening to debates and panel discussions by fellow – students.
8. Listening to English – language newscasts for personal information and pleasure.
9. Listening to commercials recorded from English – language short – wave Broadcasts or mock commercials prepared by fellow – students .
10. Listening to recordings of popular songs.
11. Continuing tape correspondence with an English – speaking friend .
C. IDENTIFICATION AND GUIDED SELECTION WITH SHOR TERM RETENTION .
12. Listening to a student presentation of a mock radio program, call – in program , or television talk show .
13. Watching English – language films.
14. Listening to a student presentation of a fashion parade.
15. Listening to lectures by other students on aspects of British or American civilization, culture. or literature and asking questions .
16. Listening to an aural text and recording answers to questions on the text.
17. Group conversations with visiting native speakers of English.
18. Micro – texts:
Stevick’s micro texts are useful as starters. A short text in English on any subject may be selected by teacher or students . this text is distributed shown on the overhead projector , or written on the chalkboard ; students then discuss and elaborate on the details of the text and any implications of it . The text should not be more than fifty words in length or longer than thirty second. Possible micro texts are a menu, a concert program, an airline time table.
19. Students practice taking notes on classroom lectures, first with an outline of points to be observed , then without guidance.
20 . dictation ‘ students are expected to listen to and retain whole sentences before writing .
IDENTIFICATION, SELECTLON, AND LONG – TERM RETENTION
21. Listening to lectures by visiting speakers of English on aspects of contemporary life in English – speaking countries.
22.Watching performances of English – language plays by visiting actors .
23. Watching performance of plays in English by the school English or on the invitation of other schools.
24. Listening to recordings of group conversations of British or American speakers discussing subjects of interest.
25. Listening to readings of plays not studied previously .
26. Extracting different lines of thought from a listening passage: listening with one set of printed questions, then listening again with a different set of Questions.
27. Visiting a show of American or British art and listening to a commentary in English .
28. Seeking information from documentaries, tapes, and records for group projects or class discussions.
29. Listening to lengthy instructions for a task one has to perform.
30. Learning to cook American or British dishes from oral instruction.
31. Visiting a restaurant which serves American or British cuisine discussing the menu with an English – speaking waiter, and eating an American or British meal in company with other English – speaking Students.
32. Making preparation for an English – language festival with a British or American exchange student , or teacher who explains what to do in English
33. Activities at an English – language club , English – language camp , or during a study abroad tour.
34. As much of the lesson as possible is conducting English
35. Listening to a passage and recording oral answers to questions abut it.
36. Listening to recording of plays , poems ,and speeches and discussing them afterwards.
37. Learning songs in English from recordings .
38. Learning a part for a play from a recording made by professional actors.
39. Group conversations and discussions on cultural subjects which students have researched, on films they have seen or on books and journals they have read.
40. Discussion of newscasts in English .
41. Asking questions at lectures by visiting speakers of English or exchange students.
42. Talking on the telephone with native speakers of English seeking in formation for projects or for reporting back to class.
Interviewing for projects or for reporting back to class.
43. Interviewing visiting , or local speakers of English or exchange students to find out information about their way of life attitudes , and institutions for a group project on contemporary American or British culture.
44. Watching an English – language film and being able to discuss afterwards questions which require aural comprehension , rather than kinesic or visual interpretation.
45. Engaging in debates and discussions on controversial subjects.
46. Showing English – speaking visitors around the school or town.
47. Listening to a story which members of the class will dramatize spontaneously later.
48. Listening to tapes of radio discussions with English – speaking authors and civic leaders , or speeches by political figures, and discussing these in the context of contemporary life.
49. Listening to newscasts in order to act as daily or weekly repertoire for the class .
50. Taking part in such competitions as intermediate activities for example recording authentic conversation with visitors.
51. Reconstruction of the text: As a preliminary study of the differences between spoken and literary language , leading later of explication of the text or commentary on a literary text ( also called literary analysis or literary appreciation ) students listen to a poem or short literary extract and , with the help of systematic questioning from the teacher , reconstruct it orally
52. Taking dictations containing information related to cultural subjects being researched.
53. While listening to a speech , lecture or taped discussion students take notes for use with a group project.
54. Listening to a speech lecture, or taped discussion and writing afterwards a summary of the main points, for use with a group project.
55. Reconstruction of the text : after having done [number 51] students reconstruct the text in writing individually or as a group and then compare their version with the Original as an exercise in stylistics.
56. As n ambitious project for a class in which listening comprehension is a major objective, or as an independent study project : students listen to British or American broadcasts to draw out information on differences between these cultures and their own. They write up the results of their research in English . ( Much can be learned from the types of news reported and what this conveys about the interests and preoccupations of English – speaking people: the types of goods advertised on English – language commercial station and the way they are advertised, the kinds of interviews conducted and with whom the types of music played on different stations and the types off questions asked by listeners.
To help students listen better we may use some of the following techniques
· keep the recording short – not more than two minutes or so.
· Play the tape a sufficient number of times.
· Let students discuss their answers together.
· Don’t immediately acknowledge correct answers ( with words or facial expressions – throw the answers back the class: what do
· You think of x’ s answer – do you agree?
· Don’t be led by one strong student have they all got it ?
· Don’t let them lose heart try to make sure the task is just within their abilities.
· Don’t set one task but then after words ask for answer to something completely different.
Bottom –up exercises
1) Goal: Discriminating Between Intonation Contours in sentences
Listen to a sequence of sentence patterns with either rising or falling intonation. Place a check in column 1 (rising ), or column 2 (falling) depending on the pattern you hear.
2) Goal: Discriminating Between phonemes
Listen to pairs of words. Some pairs differ in their final consonant, and some pairs are the same. Circle the word “ same “ or “ different, “ depending on what you hear.
3) Goal: Selective listening for Morphological Endings
Listen to a series of sentences . Circle” yes “ if the verb has an –ed ending , and circle “ no “ if it does not.
Listen to a series of sentences. On your answer sheet, circle the one (of three ) verb forms contained in the sentence that you hear.
4) Goal: Selecting Details from the text (Word Recognition)
Match a word that you hear with its picture.
Listen to a weather report. Look at a list of words and circle the words that you hear.
Listen to a sentence that contains clock time. Circle the words that you hear.
Listen to a sentence that contains clock time. Circle the clock time that you hear, among three choices (5: 30, 5: 45, 6: 15).
Listen to an advertisement, select the price of an item, and write the amount on a price tag.
Listen to a series of recorded telephone messages from an answering machine. Fill in a chart with the following information from each caller name, number, time, and message.
5) Goal: Listening for Normal sentence word Order
Listen to a short dialogue and fill in the missing words that have been deleted in a partial transcript.
6) Goal : Discriminating Between Emotional Reactions
Listen to a sequence of utterances. Place a check in the column that describes the emotional reaction that you hear : interested, happy , surprised , or unhappy .
7 ) Goal : Getting the Gist of a Sentence
Listen to a sentence describing a picture and select the correct picture.
8) Goal: Recognize the topic
Listen to a dialogue and decide where the conversation occurred. Circle the correct location among three multiple – choice items.
Listen to a conversation and look at the pictured greeting cards. Decide which of the greeting cards was sent. Write the greeting under the appropriate card.
Listen to a conversation and decide what the people are talking about . Choose the picture that shows the topic.
9) Goal: Build a Semantic Network of Word Associations
Listen to a word and associate all the related words that come to mind.
10) Goal: Recognize a familiar Word and Relate it to a Category
Listen to words form a shopping list and match each word to the store that sells it.
11) Goal: Following Directions
Listen to description of a route and trace it on a map.
12) Goal: Recognizing Fast Speech Forms
Listen to a series of sentences that contain unstressed function words. Circle your choice among three words on the answer sheet – for example : “ up , “ a, “ “ of.”
13 ) Goal : Finding the Stressed Syllable
Listen to words of two ( or three ) syllables. Mark them for word stress and predict the pronunciation of the unstressed syllable.
14) Goal: Recognizing Words with Reduced Syllables
Read a list of polysyllabic words and predict which syllabic vowel will be dropped. Listen to the words read in fast speech and com firm your prediction.
15) Goal: Recognize words as they Are Linked in the Speech Stream
Listen to sentences of short sentences with consonant / vowel linking between words. Mark the linkages on your answer sheet.
16) Goal: Recognizing Pertinent Details in the speech Stream
Listen to a short dialogue between a boss and a secretary regarding changes in the daily schedule. Use an appointment calendar. Cross out appointments that are being changed and write in new ones.
Listen to announcements of airline arrivals and departures. With model of an airline information board in front of you, fill in the flight numbers, destinations, gate numbers, and departure times.
Listen to a series of short dialogues after reading questions that apply to the dialogues. While listening, find the answers to questions about prices, places, names, and numbers. Example:
“Where are the shoppers? “ How much is whole wheat bread?”
Listen to a short telephone conversation between a customer and a service station manager. Fill in a chart which lists the car repairs that must be done. Check the part of the car that needs repair, the reason , and the approximate cost.
17) Goal: Analyze Discourse Structure to Suggest Effective Listening Strategies
Listen to six radio commercials with attention to the use of music , repetition of key words, and number of speakers. Talk about the effect these techniques have on the listeners.
18) Goal : Listen to Identify the Speaker or the topic
Listen to a series of radio commercials On your answer sheet, choose among four types of sponsors or products and identify the picture that goes with the commercial.
19) Goal : Listen to Evaluate Themes and Motives
Listen to a series of radio commercials. On your answer sheet are four possible motives that the companies use to appeal to their customers. Circle all the motives that you feel each commercial promotes: escape from reality family security, snob appeal, sex appeal.
20 ) Goal :Finding Main Ideas and Supporting Details
Listen to a short conversation between two friends. On your answer sheet are scenes from television programs. Find and write the name of the program and the channel. Decide which speaker watched which program.
21 ) Goal : Making Inferences
Listen to a series of sentences, which may be either statements or questions. After each sentence, answer a inferential question such as where might the speaker be?”
22) Goal: Discriminating Between Registers of Speech and tones of Voice
Listen to a series of sentences. On your answer sheet, mark whether the sentence is polite or impolite.
23) Goal : Recognize Missing Grammar Markers in Colloquial Speech
Listen to a series of questions with reduced verb auxiliary and subject and identify the missing verb ( does it / is it) by checking the form of the main verb. Example: “ ‘ Zit come with anything else ? ‘ Zit arriving on time? “
24) Goal : Use knowledge of Reduced forms to Clarity the Meaning of an Utterance
Listen to a short sentence containing a reduced form. Decide what the sentence means. On your answer sheet, choose the one (of three) alternatives that is the best paraphrase of the sentence you heard. Example : You hear. “ You can’t be happy with that. “ You read : ( a ) “ Why can’t you be happy ? “(b) “ That will make you happy.“ (C )“ I don’t think you are happy.”
25 ) Goal : Use Context to Build Listening Expectations
Read a short want – ad describing job qualifications from the employment section of a newspaper. Brainstorm additional qualifications that would be important for that type of job.
26) Goal : Listen to Confirm Your Expectations
Listen to short radio advertisements for jobs that are available. Check the job qualifications against your expectations.
27 ) Goal : Use Context to Build Expectations. Use Bottom – Up processing to Recognize Missing Words. Compare Your Predictions to what You Actually Heard.
Read some telephone messages with missing words. Decide what kinds of information are missing so you know what to listen for. Listen to the information and fill in the blanks. Finally, discuss with the class what strategies you used for your predictions.
28 ) Goal : Use Incomplete sensory data and cultural Background Information to construct a More complete Understanding of a text.
Listen to one side of a telephone conversation . Decide what the topic of the conversations about the number of participants ,their ages , gender , and social roles . Guess the time of day , location , temperature , season , and topic . Choose among some statements to guess what might come next .
Bottom – Up exercises
29 ) Goal: Use features of Sentence Stress and Volume to Identify Important Information for Note- Taking
Listen to a number of sentences and extract the content words, which are read with greater stress . Write the content words as notes.
30 )Goal : Become Aware of Sentence – Level Features in Lecture Text
Listen to a segment of a lecture while reading a transcript of the material. Notice the in complete sentences , pauses , and verbal fillers.
31 ) goal : Become Aware of Organizational cues in Lecture Text
Look at a lecture transcript and circle all the cue words used to enumerate the main points. Then listen to the lecture segment and note the organizational cues.
32) goal : Become Aware of Lexical and Supra segmental Markers for Definitions
Read a list of lexical cues that signal a definition; listen to signals of the speaker’s intent, such as rhetorical questions; listen to special intonation patterns and pause patterns used with appositives .
Listen to short lecture segments that contain new terms and their definitions in context . Use knowledge of lexical and intonational cues to identify the definition of the word .
33 ) Goal : Identify Specific Points of Information
Read a skeleton outline of a lecture in which the main categories are given but the specific examples are left blank. Listen to the lecture and find the information that belongs in the blanks.
34 ) Goal :Use the Introduction to the lecture to predict Its Focus and direction
Listen to the introductory section of a lecture. Then read a number of topics on your answer sheet and choose the topic that best expresses the discussion.
35 ) Goal : Use the Lecture Transcript to Predict the Content of the Next Section
Read a section of a lecture transcript . Stop reading at a juncture point and predict what will come next . Then read on to confirm your prediction .
36 ) Goal :find the Main Idea of a Lecture Segment
Listen to a section of a lecture that describes a statistical trend . While you listen , look at three graphs that show a change over time and select the graph that best illustrates the lecture .
37 ) Goal :Use Incoming Details to Determine the Accuracy of Prediction A but content.
Note whether or not the instructor talks about the points you predicted If she / he does , note a detail about the point .
38 ) Goal : determine the Main Ideas of a Section of a Lecture by Analysis of the Details in That Section
Listen to a section of a lecture and take notes on the important details . then . relate the details to form an understanding of the main point of that section . Choose from a list of possible controlling ideas .
39 ) Goal : Make Inferences by Identifying Ideas on the Sentence Level That Lead to Evaluative Statements
Listen to a section of a lecture and take notes on the important details .words Indicate what further meaning can be inferred from the statement. Indicate the words in the original statement . Indicate the word in the original statement that serve to cue the inference.
40 ) Goal : Use Knowledge of the text and the Lecture Content to Fill In Missing Information
Listen to a lecture segment for its gist . then listen to a statement from which words have been omitted . Using your knowledge of the text and off the general content, fill in the missing information . Check your understanding by listening to the entire segment.
41 ) Goal : Use Knowledge of the text and the Lecture Content to Discover the Lecturer’s Misstatements and to Supply the Ideas That He Meant to Say
Listen to a lecture segment that contains an incorrect tem. Write the incorrect term and the term that the lecture should have used. Finally, indicate what clues helped you find the misstatement.
Brown , H. Douglas , ( 2000) , Teaching by principles:
An interactive approach to language pedagogy – 2 end ed. Sanfrancisco: Longman
Celce – Murcia, M. editor , ( 2001 ) , Teaching English as a second or foreign language – 3 rd ed . Boston , MA : Heinel & Heinel
Peny ur , ( 1984 ) , Spoken English , listening comprehension Cambridge university press.
Rivers , W . ( 1978 ) , A practical guide to the teaching English as a second or foreign language, Oxford university press .
Scrivener Jim , ( 1994) , Learning Teaching , Oxford : Macmillan press.
Nunan,D., and L. Miller. (1995). New Ways in Teaching Listening Comprehension.
Morley,J. (1999). Current perspectives on improving Aural Comprehension.
TEA organises workshops and events all over Austria and has also co-hosted international conferences (NELLE, IATEFL BESIG, IATEFL TEA-SIG, DaF). Moreover, TEA has established working relationships with Teachers' Associations all over Europe and will be involved in several 'across the border' activities. Every other year there is a summer school with renowned trainers from English-speaking countries. Information on all this as well as forthcoming events in Austria and abroad,
downloadable worksheets and stop press information can be found on this website.
عملکرد یاد گیری فعال
استفاده از تکنیکهای روش های فعال تدریس تا ثیر بسیار زیادی بر روند یاد گیری دانش اموز دارد .حتی در روش
سخنرانی نیز معلم میتواند بعد از تدریس از دانش اموز بخواهد خلاصه ی کوتاهی از درس را به صورت شفاهی و
یا کتبی در کلاس ارائه دهد.همین روش در عین سادگی عاملی بسیار مفید وموثر در یادگیری است.
1.روش بازخورد ی
این روش از دو مرحله تدریس کوتاه مدت تشکیل شده است که بین این دو مرحله دانش اموزان باید در گروههای
کوچک درباره موضوع مورد بحث در کلاس گفتگو کنند.
در این روش ابتدا معلم ابتدا به مدت 20 تا 30 دقیقه تدریس میکند.در این مدت دانش اموزان اجازه ندارندهیچ
یادداشتی بردارند. انها باید فقط گوش کنندسپس معلم به انها پنج دقیقه فرصت می دهدتا هرانچه را که فهمیده اند
یادداشت کنند وبعد از ان بقیه زمان کلاس رادر به بحث و تفسیر کامل یادداشتهای خود بپردازند.
3.روش بحث وگفتگوی منطقی وعقلانی
چنانچه هدف از تدریس یادگیری و حفظ اطلاعات ایجاد انگیزه برای یاد گیری وجمع اوری اطلاعات به شیوه های
جدیدویا پرورش مهارتهای فکری دانش اوز باشد در این صورت بهتر است از روش بحث وگفتگو در کلاس استفاده
شود.با وجود این معلمان بایداطلاعات کافی و لازم را در مورد روشهای پرسش و پاسخ کسب کنند ومحیط یادگیری
هوشمندانه ای را در کلاس درس به وجود اورند .
4.روش تحقیق ونگارش
این روش نیز از روشهایی است که باغث پرورش نیروی فکری دانش اموز می شود .روی هم رفته شیوه های
یادگیری فعال همگی بر انگیزش ودستاوردهای دانش اموزان تاثیر می گذارند برای مثال استفاده از شیوه های
بصری اموزش می تواند نقطه عطفی و کانون موثری برای سایر تکنیک های متقابل باشد.